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What Are The 12 Chinese Acupuncture Meridians In The Body?

    The Chinese Acupuncture Meridians

    The Chinese acupuncture meridians are invisible channels which circulate qi, life force energy, or subtle energy throughout the body.  Many people have heard the term meridians, especially in relationship to acupuncture and Chinese medicine.  Unlike the chakras, which are energy vortexes that allow for the free flow of subtle energy from the outside world into our subtle body, the meridians transport this vital life force substance within the body.  Subtle life force energy travels through the meridians in the same way blood flows through our arteries.

    In science, researchers have been unable to validate the existence of the chakras.  This is not the case so when talking about the meridians.

    Dr. Kim Bong-Ham And Acupuncture Meridians

    In the 1960’s Dr. Kim Bong-Ham of North Korea’s National Meridian Research Institute injected individuals with small doses of Radioactive P32.  The injections were made into generalized areas of the body as well as into acupuncture points.  What they found was that the materials that was injected into a random part of the body spread and dissipated in the same way any kind of shot would.  In the individuals who were injected into specific acupuncture points, the material moved through fluid like ducts within the body, in the same way that blood flows through our veins, however, there are no corresponding “physical structures”, such as blood vessels for it to flow through.

    The Chinese acupuncture meridians are associated with the health of the physical body.  Blockages to the free flow of energy through these channels manifest as dysfunction to specific organs. For example, a blockage within the gallbladder meridian affects the ability of the gallbladder to transport bile to the digestive system and is also associated with the formation of gallstones.

    Meridians & Emotions

    In addition to physical health, the Chinese acupuncture meridians can give us a clear understanding of emotional concerns that may underlie the manifestation of disease in the body. Each organ is associated with a specific emotional state within our being.  In Chinese medicine it is said that the meridians mirror the nature of the human experience.  Said another way, the body reflects and affects the psyche, which includes the mind, emotions and spirit; and in the same way, the psychic both reflects and affects the body.  If, for example, a physical concern is expressed, an associated emotion or psycho-spiritual problem is always present as well.

    The Chinese Acupuncture Meridians Roles

    The Chinese acupuncture meridians are often described in terms of the officials or ministers in a royal court, each one with a unique gift or job to do in service to the kingdom.  The officials have specific roles.  They process, store and distribute vital energy.  In their administrative role, it is essential that the officials work hard and not fail each other.  If an official begins to slack in his efforts and does not perform his duties adequately, the other officials of the court will be inadvertently affected.  Thus, if there is an imbalance in any official, the imbalance will affect other members of the court.

    By understanding the role and behavior of the officials, you can gain insights into the dynamics of chronic illness.  They also provide us with the opportunity to look at the life and lifestyle a person is creating as it is reflected in the workings of the physical body.

    The 12 Chinese Acupuncture Meridians

    There are 12 acupuncture meridians that run throughout the body.  We will explore each of these channels, their officials and ministers and the differences between a health balanced meridian and one that is challenged. These challenges can manifest as physical imbalances and emotional issues.

    Is Your Heart Meridian Broken? The Heart Meridian & Health

    heart meridian

    On physical levels, the heart is responsible for moving and regulating the flow of blood through the body and is the basis of all life. In Chinese medicine, the Heart Acupuncture Meridian is thought of as the Supreme Controller, Grand Master, Lord and Sovereign, and is likened to the king of the land. The king is supreme in the sense that he manifests the traits of a chief executive, including wisdom, fairness, unselfishness and love for all. He is ultimately responsible for order in the kingdom, where he relies upon his ministers to carry out his will.

    Energetically speaking, the heart meridian is the supreme controller of the body. Its job is to provide a directing influence and clear insights to the organs. The heart meridian affects all of the organs and is affected by them, especially on emotional and spiritual levels. It is believed that the heart stores “shen” and is the home of spirit and reflects itself through our emotions. It is where we access our deepest love and passions and is associated with insights and understanding. Our heart meridian maintains our individually and integrity, especially against “foreign influences”.

    Emotions that affect the heart meridian are over-excitement and shock, especially in situations when the spirit is distressed. Death, the ending of a relationship, betrayal and other emotionally stressful events can have a profound impact on the heart.

    The heart, in the light of extreme events can “be broken” causing the individual to experience a heaviness in the heart and chest.  This condition is impossible to diagnose with traditional medical tests since it is not a physical manifestation of disease.

    The heart meridian is also affected by the emotions of the other organs, including grief, fear, anger and over-concern. Associated with the heart is the pericardium meridian. The pericardium and pericardium meridian protect the heart; not only physically, but emotionally and spiritually as well.

    How We Experience The Heart Meridian

    Balanced – When the heart meridian is balanced it manifests itself as individuality, responding appropriately to the environment, tranquility, gentleness, emotional balance, love, integrity, optimism, wisdom and a zest for life.

    Physical Imbalances – Imbalances of the heart meridian can manifest physically as heart palpitations, anxiety, mumbling to oneself, dizziness, fainting spells, shortness of breath, or lack of vitality.

    Emotional Imbalances – Emotionally, imbalances of the heart meridian include excessive sadness, incessant laughter, excessive dreaming/daydreaming, irrational behaviors, hysteria, joylessness, apathy, a dull state of being, emotional distress, confusion, feeling out of control, or manic behavior.

    Signs Of A Closed Heart: Your Pericardium Meridian

    pericardium meridian

    The pericardium is a loose fibrous sack around the heart that encloses it and lubricates it. It allows the heart to beat without friction. Sometimes referred to as the Circulation/Sex official, the Heart Governor, or the King’s Bodyguard, the pericardium acupuncture meridian is the prime minister who coordinates the other officials and is the one who relates to the world.

    The pericardium job is to protect the heart from injury and radical fluctuation in energy caused by the ups and downs of our emotions. It also carries out the orders of “shen”, or spirit, where it works to manifest the inclinations and desires of our true self. When, however, the spirit is weak, especially from pain and hurt in our lives, our true desires are hidden from ourselves or we turn away from the instinctive knowledge the heart has to offer us. Instead, we crave excitement and novelty. When no satisfaction is experienced from these behaviors, we become irritable and depressed.

    Another function of the pericardium meridian is to open and close the heart, where it protects us emotionally and can help us be resilient to the stresses of daily life. If affected the resulting trauma can be likened to scar tissue that forms on a wound.  It can become tough, and inflexible making it hard for us to open it and allow positive emotions to flow into the heart and heart meridian.  This can impact our ability to experience intimacy, warmth and love, thus affecting the emotional aspects of our sexuality.

    How We Experience The Pericardium Meridian

    Balanced – When the pericardium meridian is balanced, we experience joy, love, happiness, contentment, warmth, intimacy and concern in our relationships.

    Physical Imbalances – When the pericardium meridian is imbalanced physically, we can experience heart pain, chest discomfort, palpitations, angina, or an oppressed feeling in the chest. Other manifestations of an imbalanced pericardium meridian can include swelling of the axilla (armpit) and spasms of the arm, elbow or hand.

    Emotional Imbalances – Emotionally, imbalances to the pericardium meridian can manifest as sadness, sorrow, grief, coldness, lack of concern, cackling laughter, abnormal emotional response(s), hypersensitivity, and selfishness.

    Anger, Frustration & The Liver Meridian

    liver meridian

    There are a number of different names that are used to describe the function of the liver acupuncture meridian, including the Controller of Strategic Planning, General in Charge of Planning, or Chief of Staff. As the official in charge of planning, it is responsible for the assessment of circumstances and the creation of strategies and procedures. It provides us with a sense of direction, organization in the things we say and do, and supplies us with purpose and hope for our future.   It is also associated with communication and expression where it supports our ability to choose the right word or energy level.

    Needless to say, the liver meridian is responsible for the strategic control and planning of bodily functions, where it harmonizes bodily processes into a well functioning unit. Physically, the liver is responsible for detoxifying, nourishing, replenishing and storing blood, and is considered a primary center of metabolism. Energetically, the liver is responsible for maintaining harmony and the smooth movement of chi throughout the body, including the smooth transition between feelings and emotions as situations change around us. It also supports the process of self-growth, where it works to plan the unconscious needs of the core self.

    The liver meridian works in conjunction with the gallbladder meridian.  If the plans that were derived using our gallbladder energy are not manifested, its energy can back up into the liver.  Over time, or repeated instances, the liver can become congested, where it will manifest as rage, anger or frustration.

    How We Experience The Liver Meridian

    Balanced – When the liver meridian is balanced, we are kind, benevolent, compassionate and generous. It also supports our drive, planning, endurance, perseverance, quick, clear intellect, ambition, patience, and organizational abilities.

    Physical Imbalances – Physically, imbalances of the liver meridian can manifest as dry, painful eyes with blurred or weak vision, lack of suppleness or pain in moving the joints, dry skin, dizziness, infrequent or spotty menstruation, restlessness, headache, vertigo, red face and eyes, and a parched mouth.

    Emotional Imbalances – Emotionally, we can experience anger, depression, impatience, hatred, jealousy, or an attachment to strong opinions. We can also be power-hungry, over-ambitious, controlling, irritable, resentful, frustrated, or filled with rage.

    Strategic Planning & The Gallbladder Meridian

    gallbladder meridian

    The liver and gallbladder are closely linked physically. Not surprisingly, they are linked psychologically as well. The function of the gallbladder is to store the bile produced by the liver and release it into the small intestine when needed to aid digestion. The gallbladder acupuncture meridian is referred to as the Official Of Decisions and Judgment, or the General Advisor and is in charge of making decisions. It is responsible for the assessment of circumstances and the conception of plans. It represents all that is just and exact. Determination and decision stem from it.

    Combined, the liver meridian plans actions, and the gallbladder decides what to do and then executes the plan. Sometimes deficiencies of the gallbladder meridian result because we are afraid to make a decision, feel overburdened or that our choices will not be right.

    For others, they make decisions, formulate plans, but something intervenes, keeping them from carrying them out.  This energy can get backed up into the liver and frustration results. Irritability is an indication of disharmony in either the gallbladder or liver and anger affects them both. Figuratively speaking, gallstones can be an indicator of plans that have gone by the wayside.  Instead of manifesting into the world, they stagnate and become and form into stones.

    How We Experience The Gallbladder Meridian

    Balanced – When the gallbladder meridian is balanced, individuals display courage, decisive action, bravery, an ability to act, and good decision-making abilities.

    Physical Imbalances – Issues of the gallbladder meridian can manifest as digestion issues (especially when eating fatty foods), and problems with menstruation or the eyes. Headaches, neck and shoulder tension, and aching knees are also a sign of dysfunction.

    Emotional Imbalances – Emotionally, it appears as rash, hasty decision- making, easily angered (especially if liver issues are present), control issues, irritability, rage, and bitterness. On the flip side, indecision, timidity, procrastination, confusion, poor judgment, lack of courage to assert oneself and his decisions, or resentment can appear.

    Transforming Ideas Into Reality: The Stomach Meridian

    stomach meridian

    The stomach is responsible for transforming or digesting the foods we eat by mixing and breaking them down and then passing food substances along to the small intestine for further digestion. In much the same way, the stomach acupuncture meridian is referred to as the Controller of Rotting and Ripening, the Official of Public Granaries or the Sea of Food and Fluid, where it is responsible for receiving and ripening the foods and fluids we consume.

    The stomach meridian is associated with our ability to assimilate new ideas, absorbing information, as well as honoring and nurturing the self.  It is via the stomach meridian that we allow subtle energy from the world into our bodies.  This energy is then passed on to the small intestine meridian where it is sorted separating the good from the bad.  Do we keep it or do we let it go?

    For some of us the energy we receive is so intense or so undesirable to the body that is just wants to come back out.  In addition to stomach issues, people who have blockages to their stomach meridians may experience headaches (especially in the front of the head) or have sinus problems.

    How We Experience The Stomach Meridian

    Balanced – When the stomach meridian is balanced, the emotions are centered and the person tends to feel in harmony with the earth. They have a sense of trust, considerate thoughts and actions, and good concentration.

    Physical Imbalances – Issues of the stomach and stomach meridian can include symptoms such as knotted feelings or a gnawing sensation in the stomach, inhibited digestion, ulcers, gastritis, excessive or deficient stomach acid, indigestion, belching, bowel problems, lack of vitality, weight problems, appetite disorders, breastfeeding problems, headaches, sinus issues and ovarian and uterine problems.

    Emotional Imbalances – Emotionally, the stomach is easily affected by stress. In addition to manifesting physical concerns, individuals can also experience anxiety, worry, skepticism, suspiciousness, mistrust, desire to avoid others, reclusiveness, energy depletion, an inability to “stomach it”, self-pity, mania or hypo-mania, confusion, severe anxiety, and hyperactivity.

    Giving To Ourselves & Receiving From Others: The Spleen Meridian

    Chinese acupuncture meridians - spleen meridian

    The spleen acupuncture meridian is often called the Controller of Distribution, the Minister of Granary and Distribution, or the Official of Transportation. When talking about the spleen meridian, we are referring to not only the spleen but the pancreas as well, where they form a functional whole. Physically, the spleen works directly with the circulatory system, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells, the removal of other debris from the bloodstream, and as a reservoir of blood. The pancreas, on the other hand, produces insulin so that the body can use glucose (sugar) for energy. It also makes enzymes that help the body digest food.

    The function of the spleen meridian is to direct the energy of food, dictating the transformation and transportation of food into the blood and energy systems of the body. It extracts and distributes the essence of the foods we eat.

    Energetically, the spleen meridian houses our thoughts, ideas and intention, where we are able to synthesize and integrate them into the system. It supports our ability to transmit our thoughts and ideas or retrieve them from memory. It allows us to have analytical thinking and concentration. It is also associated with our ability to give and receive and imbalances to this meridian can cause us not to experience “the sweetness of life“.

    How We Experience The Spleen Meridian

    Balanced – When the spleen meridian is balanced, we experience empathy, sympathy, trust, honesty, openness, acceptance, impartiality, good memory, concentration and reasoning abilities, clear thought processes, introspection, loyalty, and creativity.

    Physical Imbalances – When the spleen meridian is affected, we experience poor circulation, heavy feeling limbs, cold extremities, fatigue, obesity, anorexia and menstrual disturbances.

    Emotional Imbalances – Emotionally, it manifests as thoughts that go round and round over the same ground, thinking too much, worrying, having unnecessary thoughts, preoccupations, obsessions, compulsive behavior, a lack of concentration, forgetfulness, cloudy thought processes, addictions, self-pity, stubbornness, and vanity.

    What’s Good For You? – The Small Intestine Meridian

    small intestine meridian

    The small intestine is responsible for the absorption of the nutrients from the foods we eat. Physiologically speaking, the small intestine receives partially digested food from the stomach and processes it further. Its primary function is to absorb what is good for us and send what is left on to the large intestine for elimination.

    Like the physical body, the small intestine acupuncture meridian is called the Controller of Assimilation or the Master of Reception. It is responsible for separating the pure from the impure, where it evaluates what is useful and good for us and eliminating what is not.

    In this role, it aids our decision making process, where it helps us to prioritize our needs and helps us to make decisions based upon what really matters or is important to us. At times, we are so surrounded by negative choices and energies that we are not in agreement with, the small intestine meridian will shut down.  This can impact our bodies ability to absorb the nutrition it needs to support and feed the body.

    Not surprisingly, the small intestine meridian is also associated with our ability to identify our needs and allows us or opens us up to receiving. In this role, it also supports the gallbladder meridian’s ability to make clear and insightful decisions, where it provides the gallbladder with good, heartfelt choices to select from.  These choices our our choices, not the choices of someone else.

    How We Experience The Small Intestine Meridian

    Balanced – When the small intestine meridian is balanced, we experience mental clarity, discernment, and the ability to distinguish relevant issues with clarity.

    Physical Imbalances – Physically, dysfunction of the small intestine meridian can manifest as either dry feces and excessive urination or diarrhea and little urination, abdominal pain, intestinal rumblings, digestive problems, or hearing difficulties (including tinnitus).

    Emotional Imbalances – Emotionally, we can have excessive judgment or end up feeling unsure about our ability to evaluate things. It can also manifest as the rejection of possibilities or indiscriminate acceptance, an inability to commit to a course of action, an inability to nourish ourselves, a lack of discernment or discrimination, critical or cynical thinking, naivety, or gullibility.

    Transformation & Letting Go: The Large Intestine Meridian

    large intestine meridian

    The large intestine is responsible for transforming and transporting waste from the body. This waste is the residue of the digestion process, where water is removed from digested materials and is then eliminated from the body. Likewise, the large intestine acupuncture meridian is responsible for not only the elimination of waste products, but also the elimination of old/toxic thoughts and feelings.

    Called the Controller of the Drainage of Dregs or the Great Eliminator, this official is responsible for the elimination of what we cannot use.  It controls our ability to transform ourselves and our lives.

    By letting go of the old, we make room for new energy and ideas to enter into our being.  This allows us to open ourselves up to growth and change.  The ability to transform ourselves makes the large intestine meridian responsible for the evolution of the self.

    The large intestine meridian can become imbalanced when we “grin and bear it”, “bite the bullet,”  when we take on the defensive posture of “I won’t let them get to me,” or “I won’t let them see that they got to me”.

    An imbalanced large intestine meridian can also cause us to hold onto energies that are no longer useful to us.  When we hold on to negative thought and emotions they can swirl around and around in our psyche wreaking havoc until finally we are able to let them go.

    How We Experience The Large Intestine Meridian

    Balanced – When it is balanced, the individual experiences compassion, good survival instincts, individuality, positive outlook, and endurance.

    Physical Imbalances – Physically, this imbalance manifests as constipation, diarrhea, lower bowel pain, colitis, IBS, intestinal gas, blocked pores, greasy skin, or an impaired sense of smell.

    Emotional Imbalances – Emotionally, it is experienced as resentment, worry, anguish, inflexibility of body and mind, pessimism, stubbornness, holding on, regret, inability to forgive, bitterness or cynicism.

    Tapping Into Personal Power: The Kidney Meridian

    Chinese acupuncture meridians -kidney meridian

    The function of the kidneys is to control the movement of water through the body. Their job is to transform fluids in the body, separating the pure from the impure, and sending waste materials to the bladder for elimination. Known as the Minister of Power, the kidney acupuncture meridian is referred to as the Resilience of Resolution.

    It is said that the energy of the kidneys is responsible for the power of our personality, our strength of character, and provides us with the energy to move through difficult situation by means of the strength of our will or will power.   From this, the kidneys are described as being the seat of courage, and provide us with drive and ambition. Astuteness is also associated with the kidney meridian, where we know just what to do in any given situation, or where we can differentiate what is useful to and for us, and discard the rest.

    Tied to the kidney meridian are the adrenal glands.  Imbalances to the kidney meridian energy can cause chronic stress and adrenal fatigue.  This can be brought about because we are running too much energy through the kidney meridian.  Like the Little Train That Could, we chug along using every bit of our will power to move forward, which draws energy from the adrenals until they run out of energy and become compromised.

    How We Experience The Kidney Meridian

    Balanced – When balanced, an individual typically experiences restraint, wisdom, rational perceptions, cleverness, ability to concentrate, determination, courage, confidence, a sense of security, as well as good organizational skills and imagination.

    Physical Imbalances – Issues of the kidney meridian include excessive or deficient fluids in the body, dark, scanty urine, constipation, dry mouth, night sweats, clear, abundant urine, edema, diarrhea, soft, brittle bones, or poor teeth.

    Emotional Imbalances – Emotionally, it is experienced as fear, hesitancy, poor will power, guilt, trembling, running from situations rather than facing them, or a fear of undertaking anything (failure complex). It may also manifest as an inferiority complex, restlessness, excessive drive, difficulty relaxing, or always looking for new challenges.

    Storing Spiritual Energy: The Bladder Meridian

    bladder meridian

    The bladder acupuncture meridian is known by a number of different names including The Great Mediator, the Official Who Controls Storage of Water, and the Minister of the Reservoir. Like the kidneys, the bladder is also concerned with the movement of fluids in the body and is strongly associated with the kidney meridian.

    Physically, the function of the bladder is to regulate fluids by receiving, storing and finally eliminating urine from the body. In much the same way, the bladder meridian is responsible for storing reserves of physical, mental and spiritual energy for us to use in emergencies.

    The bladder meridian works in conjunction with the kidney meridian.  We access the reserves of the bladder meridian in stressful situations; however, some people run on them all the time. In addition, the bladder meridian controls the flow of our thoughts, where we can choose to hold on to negative thoughts and ideas.

    For many, fear can be a predominant emotion associated with this meridian.  This fear drives and activates the kidney meridians causing them to become imbalanced as well.

    How We Experience The Bladder Meridian

    Balanced – When balanced, the person may be seen as being cautious, yet these are a sign of restraint, determination, will power, and ambition.

    Physical Imbalances – When impaired, imbalances can manifest as headaches, back tension, back pain (especially around the kidneys), sciatica, painful knees, cystitis, incontinence, bed wetting, or other issues involving fluid movement in the body.

    Emotional Imbalances – From an emotional point of view, an individual may experience a lack of confidence, nervousness, strained nerves, hypersensitivity, or feeling overwhelmed or internally empty. They may not be able to stand up for themselves or will do so at any cost. They may suppress emotions, feel as if life is too much to handle, or be frightened, leaving them in a survival state.

    Opening To The Meaning Of Life: The Lung Meridian

    lung meridian

    The lungs are responsible for gas exchange. They are constantly exposed to our external environment and act as a direct interface with the world outside. They separate our internal world from the world around us. It is in the lungs that air first enters the body. When we inhale, we bring in the gas we need (oxygen – the fuel that all the cells and organs of our body need to function) which is then infused into the bloodstream and distributed to the cells and organs of the body. When we exhale, we expel the gasses we no longer need (carbon dioxide – the by-product of our bodily processes). This provides a rhythm and order to the system as we take in air and let it go.

    Called the Controller of Received Qi and Official of Jurisdiction and Regulation, the lung acupuncture meridian establishes the pulse of life and regulates all energetic processes. In this role, it regulates qi movement, blood circulation and fluid metabolism, as well as the autonomic nervous system and the immune system. The lung meridian is also associated with the skin, which separates the body from the outside environment.

    The lung meridian works directly under the control of the heart meridian. It provides us with a sense of inspiration and provides us with meaning in our lives. It transforms the energies of the soul, giving us the ability to create sharp clear feelings. For example, when we don’t want to experience something emotionally, we suppress our breath. This influences our general energy levels as well as the amount of energy available to feel and experience emotions.

    How We Experience The Lung Meridian

    Balanced – When this meridian is balanced, we experience compassion, good instincts, intuition, free will, individuality, a positive outlook toward life, and a sense of purpose.

    Physical Imbalances – Issues of the lung meridian can manifest as asthma, emphysema, cough, congested and sore throat, bronchitis and other issues of the lungs, as well as conditions of the skin. The lung meridian is also associated with the regulation of fluids in the body; thus, imbalances can appear as edema, perspiration issues, or excessive phlegm.   It can also be felt as a sensation of fullness in the chest.

    Emotional Imbalances – Emotionally, issues of this meridian can be experienced as difficulty separating the “I” from the “not I”, grief, repressed sorrow, depression, feeling weighed down, feelings of emptiness, crying, tiredness, boredom, pessimism, apathy, or feeling as if one’s life is passing them by or are unable to receive the riches of life. It can also manifest as an inability to feel fulfilled or a state of being cut off from new ideas, people and life.

    Understanding Depression & Chronic Fatigue: The Triple Warmer

    The Triple Warmer

    The triple warmer is called the Minister of Dykes and Dredges or the Official of Balance and Harmony. Of all the meridians, this one is not associated with a physical organ and is not recognized in Western medicine. The triple warmer relates to a functional energy system, which regulates the activities of the other organs. It is responsible for the movement and transformation of solids and fluids throughout the body and the production and circulation of nourishing and protecting energy.

    The triple warmer is broken down into three parts, the upper burner which runs from the base of the tongue to the entrance of the stomach, the middle burner, which goes from the entrance to the stomach to the pyloric valve, and the lower burner that runs from the pyloric valve to the anus and urinary tract.   Some research indicates that the triple warmer is associated with the hypothalamus, the part of the brain that regulates many autonomic functions including appetite, digestion, fluid balance, temperature, heartbeat and blood pressure.

    Energetically, the triple warmer is in charge of the transformation and movement of energy in the body, balancing the body’s energy by providing pathways of unobstructed flow.   Physically, it is responsible for the regulation of heat/cold in the body, where it harmonizes the function of the organs and regulatory systems in the body.

    How We Experience The Triple Warmer

    Balanced – When the Triple Warmer is balanced, the individual is hopeful, sociable, and has the ability to work well in groups. They also exhibit personal warmth and a good sense of humor.

    Emotional Imbalances – When it is imbalanced, the individual may experience depression, rambling thoughts, forgetfulness, despair, phobias, hopelessness, or be excessively volatile or extraordinarily phlegmatic. They may also possess an inability to deal with non-intimate contact such as in one-on-one relationships or with groups of people, and may appear standoffish.

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